Around 931 million tonnes of food goes to waste each year.
61% comes from households, 26% from food service and 13% from retail.
Reducing waste could have social, economic and environmental benefits.
The UN Sustainable Development Goals aim to halve food waste by 2030.
Some 931 million tonnes of food goes to waste each year, with between 8-10% of global carbon emissions linked to unconsumed produce, according to a UN report.
About 17% of global food production may go wasted, according to the UN Environment Programme’s (UNEP) Food Waste Index Report 2021, with 61% of this waste coming from households, 26% from food service and 13% from retail.
Food waste burdens waste management systems, increases food insecurity and is a major contributor to the global problems of climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution.
Reducing food waste at all levels – consumer and domestic – could therefore have significant environment, social and economic benefits.
This ambition is enshrined in UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 12.3, which commits countries to halving per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level by 2030.
Food waste problem worse than previously thought
The Food Waste Index is the first of its kind to highlight the scale of the problem. Indeed, it suggests that global food waste could be more than twice the size of earlier estimates.
Previous studies indicated that consumer food waste was exclusively a problem in developed countries, with production, storage and transportation losses thought to be particular issues in the developing world.
However, the report found that household food waste per capita is similar across high-income, upper middle-income and lower-middle income countries. There was insufficient data on low-income ones.
It estimates that food loss and waste costs the global economy $936 billion a year. Overall, food systems cost society $12 trillion dollars in health, economic and environmental costs – which is 20% more than the market value of food systems.
The report outlines how food systems transformation can be incentivized, including by repurposing public investment and policies; redesigning business models; getting investors to set higher standards for companies; and encouraging consumers to shift demand to more socially-responsible products.
How to tackle the problem of food waste
At government level, the Food Waste Index encourages countries to use its methodology for measuring food waste – at household, food service and retail level – in order to guide national strategies for food waste prevention and track progress towards the 2030 goals.
But there are also many things that can be done at consumer or household level, with the FAO suggesting a range of ways to waste less food, for example by adopting a healthier diet, only buying what you need and storing food wisely.
Two billion people in the world currently suffer from malnutrition and according to some estimates, we need 60% more food to feed the global population by 2050. Yet the agricultural sector is ill-equipped to meet this demand: 700 million of its workers currently live in poverty, and it is already responsible for 70% of the world’s water consumption and 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
New technologies could help our food systems become more sustainable and efficient, but unfortunately the agricultural sector has fallen behind other sectors in terms of technology adoption.
Launched in 2018, the Forum’s Innovation with a Purpose Platform is a large-scale partnership that facilitates the adoption of new technologies and other innovations to transform the way we produce, distribute and consume our food.
With research, increasing investments in new agriculture technologies and the integration of local and regional initiatives aimed at enhancing food security, the platform is working with over 50 partner institutions and 1,000 leaders around the world to leverage emerging technologies to make our food systems more sustainable, inclusive and efficient.
Understanding food labelling is also helpful. ‘Use by’ tells you the date up to which food is safe to be eaten, while ‘best before’ indicates that the food’s quality is best prior to that date, although it is still safe to be eaten afterwards.
People are also encouraged to take smaller portions and love leftovers, so anything left can be frozen for later or added as ingredients in another meal. Food scraps can also be composted, giving nutrients back to the soil and reducing your carbon footprint.
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