Why freshwater fish farms could increase global food security


  • Studies suggest that freshwater fish farms are a more sustainable alternative to ‘mariculture’ – farming at sea.
  • Three academics argue that governments, funders and scientists should focus on improving aquaculture on land, to align with the UN SDGs.
  • Evidence shows there are fewer economic and resource constraints for freshwater aquaculture.
  • There is also greater potential for land-based fish farms to help global food security, write the experts.

A tidal wave of interest is building in farming the seas. It’s part of a global rush to exploit oceanic resources that’s been dubbed the “blue acceleration.”

Optimistic projections say that smart mariculture – fish farming at sea – could increase ocean fish and shellfish production by 21 million to 44 million metric tons by 2050, a 36%-74% jump from current yields. Other estimates suggest that an ocean aquaculture area the size of Lake Michigan might produce the same amount of seafood as all of the world’s wild-caught fisheries combined.

We see freshwater fish farms as a better way to help fight hunger and bolster food security. In our view, governments, funders and scientists should focus on improving aquaculture on land to help meet the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals.

Ocean aquaculture advocates often cite limited supplies of wild-caught fish and call for cultivating them to feed the world. As they see it, aquaculture on land is limited by scarce land and freshwater resources, while the oceans offer vast areas suitable for farming.

Framed this way, mariculture seems to offer boundless potential to meet future demand for seafood and feed vulnerable populations with little environmental impact. But our research paints a different picture. We see far fewer technical, economic and resource constraints for freshwater aquaculture than for ocean farming, and far greater potential for land-based fish farms to contribute to global food security.

Freshwater aquaculture has grown steadily over the past three decades. Asia is at the center of this boom, accounting for 89% of world aquaculture production, excluding plants.

The most important species groups – carp, tilapia and catfish – are herbivorous or omnivorous, so they don’t need to eat animal protein to thrive. While they may be fed small amounts of fish to speed growth, their mainstay diet consists of inexpensive byproducts of crops like rice, groundnut and soy, as well as natural plankton.

It’s relatively cheap and easy to grow freshwater fish in small earthen ponds. Aquaculture has been an economic boon, especially in Asia, providing jobs and income for vast numbers of family farms, workers and small businesses. Farmed freshwater fish tend to be an affordable staple food for millions of low- and middle-income consumers – and many better-off ones, too.

Raising marine fish is a different proposition. The harsh ocean environment makes production risky, and the biology of these species makes many of them difficult and costly to breed and grow.

Most marine aquaculture species are carnivores, so they need other fish as part of their diets. About 20 million metric tons of fish caught each year is used instead to feed farmed fish. It’s a contentious environmental and ethical issue, as some of these fish could otherwise be food for humans.

Improvements in technology have reduced, though not eliminated, the amount of fish used in feeds, especially for farmed salmon. It now takes half as much fresh fish to raise salmon as it did 20 years ago.

These innovations were achieved through massive investments by the Norwegian government and the industry, dating back to the 1970s. Research focused on genetic improvement, nutrition and production systems, and it’s paid off. Farmed salmon now accounts for 45% of all fish farmed from the sea.

image of Grieg Seafood's salmon farm in Clio Channel, Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, in partnership with the Tlowitsis First Nation.

Grieg Seafood’s salmon farm in Clio Channel, Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, in partnership with the Tlowitsis First Nation.

Image: David Stanley/Flickr, Creative Commons

However, it’s unlikely that other less popular fish, like grouper, sea bass or cobia, will be as thoroughly researched or farmed with the same efficiency. The market is too small.

For a land-based analogy, think of chickens. Like salmon, they have long been the focus of intensive research and development. As a result, they now grow to market size in just 45 days. On the other hand, the guinea fowl – a chickenlike bird raised for specialty markets – has undergone limited selective breeding, develops slowly and yields far less meat, making it more costly to raise and more expensive to buy.

Our ocean covers 70% of the world’s surface and accounts for 80% of the planet’s biodiversity. We can’t have a healthy future without a healthy ocean – but it’s more vulnerable than ever because of climate change and pollution.

Tackling the grave threats to our ocean means working with leaders across sectors, from business to government to academia.

The World Economic Forum, in collaboration with the World Resources Institute, convenes the Friends of Ocean Action, a coalition of leaders working together to protect the seas. From a programme with the Indonesian government to cut plastic waste entering the sea to a global plan to track illegal fishing, the Friends are pushing for new solutions.

Climate change is an inextricable part of the threat to our oceans, with rising temperatures and acidification disrupting fragile ecosystems. The Forum runs a number of initiatives to support the shift to a low-carbon economy, including hosting the Alliance of CEO Climate Leaders, who have cut emissions in their companies by 9%.

Is your organization interested in working with the World Economic Forum? Find out more here.

Marine fish farming is currently done in sheltered bays and sea lochs. But there is growing interest in a new high-tech method that raises fish in huge submersible cages anchored far from land in the open ocean. It’s risky business, with high operating costs. Expensive infrastructure is vulnerable to intense storms.

To be successful, offshore farms will need to grow high-priced fish such as bluefin tuna. And they will need to operate at industrial scale, like SalMar’s massive “Ocean Farm” in Norway, which has capacity for 1.5 million fish.

While open-ocean mariculture may be technically feasible, its economic viability is questionable. Pilot projects in Norway, China and the U.S. are not yet commercially successful. And though there is strong global demand for salmon, other species like grouper have small niche markets. They are likely to remain specialized high-end products because of steep production costs.